Although the Michelin Guide born in 1900, it wasn't until 1920 when he started talking about restaurants, opening the path that has led to the tire company to be the largest and most important gastronomic prescriber in the world.
Until 1931 the three-star system we know today was not implemented, which became effective in the 1933 edition of the guide, which then I only picked up French restaurants. Of the restaurants that obtained the highest ranking then only two were run by women. Day by day only 11 of 119 restaurants With three Michelin stars they have a chef.Direct to the Palate From Mesopotamia to the Michelin Guide: the history of women in the kitchen is the history of machismo
Marie Bourgeois Y Eugénie Brazier They were the first women to receive what is considered by chefs and media as the highest distinction of gastronomy and, In 87 years, only eleven more women have received honor size.
Although those responsible for the guide have noted the increasing incorporation of restaurants run by women, the truth is that, especially at the top of the table, the cooks are the exception that confirms the rule and they are incorporated into the constellation of the three stars with drop counts.
In almost half a century, between 1932 and 1985, only one woman, Marguerite Bise, He got the distinction. Four women joined the list in the 90s, the same figure as in the first decade of the new millennium. In the last ten years only one woman, Dominique Believe, He has obtained all three stars. Among the winners there are also many cooks who have 'inherited' the stars that a man had previously obtained.
To make a list of men who have received the three Michelin stars we would need to make several articles, but since there have only been thirteen pioneers who have received this award, well You can tell your story in a single report.
Eugénie Brazier (1895-1977) was not only the first woman to receive the third Michelin star, she was also the first person who managed to have two restaurants at the top of the table, an achievement that no chef managed to overcome in 36 years.
His restaurant, La Mère Brazier, helped to forge the essence of the kitchen of Lyon, considered the French capital of gastronomy, and in its kitchen were formed, among many other chefs, the great Paul Bocuse.
Among his most famous dishes we find the Langouste Belle Aurore, a whole lobster that was served as a sweet dessert, bathed in brandy and cream, or the Poularde in demi-deuil ("Pularda in semi-mourning"), an iconic dish of Lyon cuisine, in which the bird is cooked at low temperature and is accompanied by truffle and a supreme sauce.
Marie Bourgeois (1870-1937) showed the three stars between 1933 and 1937 in his restaurant La mère Bourgeois, in Priay - in the department of Ain, in the east of France hitting the Alps.
Burgeois is considered another one of those Lyon grandmothers which, since the mid-eighteenth century, began to open their own restaurants after stop working as maids in the homes of wealthy families.
His best known recipes were the spicy pie, fresh frogs and floating island with pink pralines. After her death in 1937, her daughter took over her restaurant until 1951, but never recovered the stars again.
Marguerite Bise (1898-1965) was the third woman to obtain three Michelin stars, almost 20 years after her predecessors, when the first Michelin Guide was published after World War II, in 1951.
His restaurant, Auberge du Père Bise (which bore her husband's name, next to her in the photo), became one of the most famous French restaurants of the 30s for dishes such as crayfish gratin and the tarragon chicken.
Bise forms, together with Brazies and Bourgeois, the group considered as “The grandmothers of Lyon”, absolute pioneers of French gastronomy. Although Marguerite's granddaughter, Sophie BiseHe kept the three stars for the restaurant - after picking up his father Francois Bise's witness - it was not until half a century later, in 2007, when a new restaurant run by a woman returned to obtain the three stars in France.
Marguerite Bise's granddaughter inherited the family business stove in 1985, recovering the third Michelin star that her father, Francois Bise, lost due to illness. Unlike his predecessors, Bise had trained as a cook in numerous kitchens in New York, Venezuela and Brazil and gave the Auberge du Père Bise renewed airs.
Annie Féolde was the first woman to get the three Michelin stars in the Michelin Guide of Italy, although it is also French. In the 70s he met the sommelier Giorgio Pinchiorri with which he opened the Enoteca Pinchiorri (again, an establishment with the name of a man) being she head of kitchen.
Until 1974 the wine bar did not start serving hot food, but little by little it was attracting attention. In 1981 he got his first star, in 1928 the second and, ten years later, in 1992, came the third. That same year a fire was declared in the restaurant's warehouse that almost carried the business ahead, but after assessing the damage, Féolde convinced Pinchiorri to keep the restaurant open and not permanently close it.
Féolde has always been a self-taught cook, which stood out for bringing the finesse of French cuisine to Italian cuisine.
Santini was the first non-French chef to obtain the three Michelin stars for her restaurant Dal Pescatore, in Canneto sull'Oglio (Lombardy). The establishment was opened by her husband's great-grandparents as a trattoria in 1910, but it was when Santini took over the stoves of the restaurant, in 1974, when it began to emerge. In 1996 he was awarded the three Michelin stars.
Santini was one of the first chefs in Italy to explored creative cuisine, but always tied to the local product. Their specialty has always been tortellini, especially those that make pumpkin, amaretto, parmesan and mustard fillings.
Luisa Marelli Valazza
Valazza was the second Italian to get the third Michelin star, only two years after Santini, in 1998. His restaurant To the Sorriso (in Soriso, Piedmont) opened its doors in 1981. Only one year after its opening it obtained its first star, in 1989 the second and almost a decade later the third.
Your kitchen is inspired by the Piedmontese traditional elaborations, which include cheeses and sausages produced in the region, mountain herbs, and white truffles from Alba and Piedmont.
Elena Arzak She was the first Spanish chef who obtained the three Michelin stars, after beginning to direct the kitchen of her father's restaurant, Juan Mari Arzak, which had the distinction since 1989. Thirty years later, Arzak maintains all three macarons.
In the opinion of Elena Arzak the Michelin Guide has always recognized women when they have had to recognize them, and believes that, now that there is a general awareness about women's equality, the cooks will be increasingly incorporated into the guide.
The cook of Finnish origin Helena Puolakka won the third Michelin star for the London restaurant Le Tante Claire in 2001, for which he worked with the chef and restaurant owner Pierre Koffman (to which the stars are usually attributed). Although the award is shared, Puolakka is the first cook who received the highest distinction of the guide in the United Kingdom.
In 2003, only two years of obtaining the three stars, the restaurant closed and was sold to Gordon Ramsay, which transformed it into its main restaurant. Puolakka then went to direct the restaurant's stove Aster and then, Skylon, both in London. In an interview with The Wordrobe He defined his kitchen in three words: seasonal, fresh and clean.
The Norwegian Clare Smyth She was the first British chef to earn the three Michelin stars, in 2007, when she was appointed head chef of the Gordon Ramsay restaurant (which had the highest ranking of the guide since 2001). Smyth managed to keep the three stars as head chef until, in 2016, she left Ramsay's restaurant to open her own business: the restaurant Core in the London neighborhood of Notting Hill.
Core's career, a restaurant where Smyth revindicates the use of humble ingredients, mostly vegetables, it has been meteoric. In just two years he has managed to get two Michelin stars, which confirms Smyth as one of the best chefs in the UK. The cook received in 2018 the title of Best Cook in the World, awarded 50 Best. Smythe wondered if he should collect the prize, alluding that the role of chef should not have a gender specialty.
Anne-Sophie Pic managed to break, even shyly, the gender gap present in French gastronomy, becoming the First cook to receive the three Michelin stars in the hex in 56 years.
Born in the breast a family of long tradition in restoration, Pic took the reins of the family business, Maison Pic, after his son Alain Pic, left the kitchen. The restaurant, founded in 1889, had already obtained the three Michelin stars at the hands of the cook's father, Jacques, which maintained the distinction between 1973 and until his death in 1992. In 2007 his daughter managed to recover the three macarons For the historic house.
Even though Carme Ruscalleda earned the three Michelin stars for his Sant Pau restaurant In 2019, after Elena Arzak assumed the leadership of her establishment maintaining the three stars, she was the first Spanish to achieve the highest distinction of the guide for a restaurant opened by herself.
Three years after the opening of Sant Pau, in 1988, Ruscalleda obtained his first star; the second was silent in 1996 and in 2006 the third. Last October Ruscalleda closed the doors of Sant Pau, to focus on her other projects, but for three years she has been the woman with the most stars in the world, seven in total, three by Sant Pau, two by Moments, in front of whose kitchens is his son Raül Balam, and two more by the Sant Pau restaurant in Tokyo.
The last woman to obtain the three Michelin stars, and the first American to do so, has been Dominique Crenn, head chef of the Atelier Crenn, in San Francisco. The cook obtained the highest distinction of the guide in its latest edition and was also named “Best cook in the world” for 50 Best.
Crenn's career, which opened his restaurant in 2011, has been meteoric. The Cook has obtained all three macarons in just eight seven years, an achievement within reach of very few. Those who have been able to try their kitchen ensure that it has extreme sensitivity and is measured to the smallest detail.Live to the Palate These are the 17 most influential women in Spanish cuisine
As Crenn herself explained in her recent visit to Madrid Fusion, the dishes have to tell a story and evoke the memory, reconnecting the diner with the nature of the land. His proposals have always won critical acclaim for the technical perfection in execution without falling into unnecessary devices, with plated of great beauty, suggestive, but never subtract the flavor of the product.
Images | Promotional photographs of the respective restaurants except Clare Smyth (50 Best) and Carme Ruscalleda (Monmar Comunicació)